Nr. 06/2 (2015)

Sendung

Phänomen und Begriff der Sendung haben eine enorme medienwissenschaftliche Relevanz. Als medienwissenschaftliches Konzept besitzt die Sendung das Potential zur Entfaltung komplexer Grundannahmen der Medientheorie und zugleich zu ihrer reduzierenden Bündelung und Einfassung. Sie verbindet und durchkreuzt ganz grundsätzlich das begrifflich sorgsam Getrennte, zum Beispiel das Heilige und das Profane, das Materielle und das Immaterielle, das Aktive und das Passive. Sie ist darin ein genuin medienwissenschaftlicher Leitbegriff, an dem sich die gesamte Breite dessen, was Medium sein kann, entfalten lässt, von der Religion bis zum Massenmedium, von der Politik bis zum Postboten, von der Infrastruktur bis zur Entrückung. Sie erzeugt zudem in all ihrer Materialität mannigfaltige paradoxe und reflexive Verläufe. Angesichts dieser fruchtbaren medienwissenschaftlichen Ideallage der Sendung ist es wirklich erstaunlich, wie wenig einschlägige Aufmerksamkeit ihr bislang zuteilwurde. Sieht man einmal von bemerkenswerten Einzelfällen ab, wie etwa Dieter Daniels’ Buch über »Kunst als Sendung«, so wurde die Sendung noch fast ausnahmslos indirekt im Rahmen der Betrachtung bestimmter Einzelformate von Versandstücken wie der Postkarte, dem Brief oder auch der Fernsehsendung beschrieben und theoretisiert. Während der Sendung aufs engste benachbarte Konzepte wie zum Beispiel die Botschaft oder die Nachricht in der Kommunikationstheorie enorme begriffliche Prominenz erlangten, blieb die Sendung nahezu unterbestimmt. Einzig und frappierend ist es das Konzept des Senders, das sich bis heute stark behauptet hat, technisch wie theoretisch, während die Sendung nahezu stumm geblieben ist. Die neue Ausgabe der ZMK möchte das ändern und der Sendung eine Stimme verleihen. Die exemplarischen Beiträge behandeln Sendungen und auch das Sendungsbewusstsein der klassischen Literatur, des Fernsehens sowie von Postkarten und Google.

Contents

Editorial Lorenz Engell, Bernhard Siegert

Das mediale Monopol des Staates und seine Verteidigungslinien Jens Schröter

Framing and Conserving Byzantine Art at the Menil Collection: Experiences of Relative Identity Glenn Peers

Das Einhüllen und Fesseln des Körpers in den indoeuropä­ischen Kulturen. Zu einigen Metaphern des magischen Schutzes vor Toten und Wiedergeborenen Carmen Alfaro Giner

Debatte: Debattenkultur Christian Demand und Ekkehard Knörer

»Schicksal, also ein von einer höhern Macht Gesendetes, das wir empfangen sollen«. Über Sendungen und Sendungsbewusstsein Jochen Hörisch

Gott und Google John Durham Peters

Wozu senden? Sende­visionen im Ersten und Dritten Fernseh­zeitalter Daniela Wentz

The Second Screen: Convergence as Crisis Markus Stauff

Sendungsbewusstsein im Zeitalter der Kurzkommunikation. Die Postkarte Anett Holzheid

Google Control. Ein Gespräch mit Barbara Cassin Barbara Cassin

Abstracts

Lorenz Engell, Bernhard Siegert Editorial

Auch die Zeitschrift für Medien- und Kulturforschung erreicht ihre Leserinnen und Leser als Sendung, als Postgut auf dem Wege der Zustellung nämlich. Wer immer sie liest, hat also mit der Sendung zu tun. Allein das schon ist ein Grund, sich mit der Sendung zu befassen.

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Jens Schröter Das mediale Monopol des Staates und seine Verteidigungslinien

Even in liberal democracies there are media forms and procedures monopolized by the state. Such are the methods to secure and stabilize the authenticity of money and state documents, i.e. the central media of economy and the state. In terms of a media history of the state, the paper describes these forms and methods of securing authenticity and shows how the state had to respond to ever new technological threats to its media monopoly.

Glenn Peers Framing and Conserving Byzantine Art at the Menil Collection: Experiences of Relative Identity

Conservation and exhibition of historical works of art run many risks of misrepresenta- tion of the life and meanings of objects. This paper explores the identities of some particu- larly compelling examples of Byzantine art restored under special circumstances at the Menil Collection in Houston, Texas. This examination of the restoration of frescos and icons, and their particular display histories, reveals the contingencies of our encounters with and explanations of historical art.

Carmen Alfaro Giner Das Einhüllen und Fesseln des Körpers in den indoeuropä­ischen Kulturen. Zu einigen Metaphern des magischen Schutzes vor Toten und Wiedergeborenen

Threads, ropes and textiles are elements of everyday life, which have reached a high technical level of development early in human history. The spinning of the yarn, one of the oldest forms of knowledge, seems to be, like the origin of every form of art, inseparable from a particular mythology. Besides their practical use, threads, nodes and tissues must have been quickly charged with symbolic meanings. This article examines the symbol- ism of the thread, the node and the tissue as metaphors that are sometimes connected with life and sometimes with death.

Christian Demand und Ekkehard Knörer Debatte: Debattenkultur

A debate is a public dispute that follows cer- tain rules. The goal of a debate is not the solution of a problem as in a discussion , but to point out positions. In a debate, not only arguments, but also polemics and the courage to take a stand are essential. Besides certain rules that are accepted by all participants, a debate needs a so-called debate culture in order to be productive. Christian Demand and Ekkehard Knörer lead a debate on the establishment of this concept in the 1980s and develop theses for its alleged disappearance caused by the acceleration of debates under the conditions of “new media.”

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Jochen Hörisch »Schicksal, also ein von einer höhern Macht Gesendetes, das wir empfangen sollen«. Über Sendungen und Sendungsbewusstsein

To the extent in which postal ‘sending,’ the successful delivery of messages, dramatically improves since the European eighteenth cen- tury, the persuasiveness of the religious sense of mission or ‘sending’ is fading. This is not surprising. To be reached by a divine call, by a Kerygma, should, indeed must be an exqui- site exception of the regularities of every- day life. Many are called but few are chosen (Matthew 22:14). In somewhat enlightened times, the question of the reliability of heav- enly sendings cannot be suppressed anymore. Anyone can deny anyone to be the truthful addressee of divine sendings. There are no in- tersubjectively binding states of transmission between heaven and earth: this higher triv- iality is predicable and writable since 1750. Complementary to this development, the controllability of terrestrial sendings increases – despite enormous gains in complexity.

John Durham Peters Gott und Google

Both the structure of the Google search algo- rithm and the rhetoric surrounding the com- pany suggest Google’s aspiration to attain the classic theological status of omniscience. Understanding how Google performs online searches shows that this most characteristic of all digital media corporations fits in a long lineage of religious media that claim to oper- ate ontologically.

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Daniela Wentz Wozu senden? Sende­visionen im Ersten und Dritten Fernseh­zeitalter

Among the many institutions of sending, tele- vision certainly represents the most successful one over long decades. Nevertheless, given the changes that the medium incurs in terms of broadcasting and broadcasts as a conse- quence of digitalisation, many proclaim – and not entirely without reason – the post-broad- cast era. This paper studies these changes by way of a reading of different television series. The format of the series seems particularly suitable to this end, since the broadcasting of television seems deeply linked to seriality and the serial as a principle. The changes in tele- vision broadcasting can be gleaned from the forms and changes of the serial.

Markus Stauff The Second Screen: Convergence as Crisis

This article takes the second screen – tele- vision-related use of smart phones and tablet computers – as a starting point to discuss how current culture is shaped by the ever more heterogeneous connections between multiple devices, texts and platforms. They form un- stable assemblages that simultaneously high- light and undermine the specific affordances of their elements. Focusing first on technical and industrial and then on practical and do- mestic procedures of creating connections, the current media landscape will be described as ›convergence as crisis‹: While media indeed become increasingly more interconnected, the connections themselves and the shape of the assemblage in its entirety are ephemeral, unstable and vague. Convergence mainly ex- ists and is generated through being in crisis.

Anett Holzheid Sendungsbewusstsein im Zeitalter der Kurzkommunikation. Die Postkarte

As a novelty of the industrial and postal mod- ernism of the late 19th century, the postcard differs from the letter in terms of media cul- ture. While the paradigmatic act of verbal intensity and extension (of “writing” or “composition”) is constitutive for the latter, the postcard represents an opposing model of reduction and substitution of scripture. The postcard symbolizes the trenchant signal whose value is obtained from the mastery of sending. To show in what way the medium of short communication has been instrumen- tal in the emergence of a modern culture of “sending” is the aim of this paper.

Barbara Cassin Google Control. Ein Gespräch mit Barbara Cassin

Google is not only a worldwide enterprise that represents like no other the power of search engines and the Internet in general. In this interview from 2009 Barbara Cassin ana- lyzes Google’s rhetoric and sense of mission, which is “to organize all the information in the world.” Cassin characterizes this claim as global, violent and total, and shows that it also influences contemporary notions of democ- racy, culture and science. In the course of the conversation, it becomes clear that this influ- ence not only has positive effects.